Information

How do biologists infect cells with viruses within a lab setting?

How do biologists infect cells with viruses within a lab setting?


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

I'm writing an experimental proposal as my final paper for my single molecule biophysics class. Part of the procedure I wrote involves intentionally infecting a culture of HeLa cells with SARS-CoV-2 in order to perform a series of tests on it. Are there any readings or articles that you guys can point me to which detail how biologists intentionally infect cells with viruses within a lab setting?


You'll probably want to consider whether HeLa cells are the optimal cell line for acheiving your objectives. This paper shows minimal change in cell viability of HeLa cells innoculated with SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV2, but it's probably a good resource for how cell-culture infections are performed. This paper claims that VeroE6 is the standard cell line for producing viral stocks of SARS CoV-2.

Best of luck with your proposal.


How do biologists infect cells with viruses within a lab setting? - Biology

Bacteriophage cultures require host cells in which the virus or phage multiply.

Learning Objectives

Define the reasons for, and ways to batch culture bacteriophages

Key Takeaways

Key Points

  • A bacteriophage is a type of virus that infects bacteria. It does so by injecting genetic material – either DNA or RNA – which it carries enclosed in an outer protein capsid.
  • To enter a host cell, bacteriophages attach to specific receptors on the surface of bacteria, including lipopolysaccharides, teichoic acids, proteins, or even flagella.
  • Phage virions do not move independently, they must rely on random encounters with the right receptors when in solution (blood, lymphatic circulation, irrigation, soil water, etc. ).

Key Terms

Strategies of Replication

Virus or phage cultures require host cells in which to multiply. For bacteriophages, cultures are grown by infecting bacterial cells. The phage can then be isolated from the resulting plaques in a lawn of bacteria on a plate.

Bacteriophages infecting a bacteria: Virus or phage cultures require host cells in which to multiply. For bacteriophages, cultures are grown by infecting bacterial cells. The phage can then be isolated from the resulting plaques in a lawn of bacteria on a plate.

A bacteriophage is any one of a number of viruses that infect bacteria. They do this by injecting genetic material, which they carry enclosed in an outer protein capsid, into a host bacterial cell. The genetic material can be ssRNA, dsRNA, ssDNA, or dsDNA (‘ss-‘ or ‘ds-‘ prefix denotes single-strand or double-strand), along with either circular or linear arrangements.

Bacteriophage: Diagram of how some bacteriophages infect bacterial cells.

To enter a host cell, bacteriophages attach to specific receptors on the surface of bacteria, including lipopolysaccharides, teichoic acids, proteins, or even flagella. This specificity means a bacteriophage can infect only those bacteria bearing receptors to which they can bind, which in turn determines the phage’s host range. Host growth conditions also influence the ability of the phage to attach and invade them. As phage virions do not move independently, they must rely on random encounters with the right receptors when in solution within blood, lymphatic circulation, irrigation, soil water, or other environments..

Phages may be released via cell lysis, by extrusion, or, in a few cases, by budding. Lysis, by tailed phages, is achieved by an enzyme called endolysin, which attacks and breaks down the cell wall peptidoglycan. An altogether different phage type, the filamentous phages, make the host cell continually secrete new virus particles. Released virions are described as free, and, unless defective, are capable of infecting a new bacterium. Budding is associated with certain Mycoplasma phages. In contrast to virion release, phages displaying a lysogenic cycle do not kill the host but, rather, become long-term residents as prophage.


Swiss Scientists Have Recreated the Coronavirus in a Lab

As countries scramble to contain the novel coronavirus spreading around the world, scientists in Switzerland are intentionally making more of the deadly virus. The only difference is that their version is synthetic.

Behind the doors of a high-security laboratory in a tiny Swiss villa g e, researchers at the University of Bern recreated the coronavirus, formally known as SARS-CoV-2, in just a week using yeast, a published genome, and mail-order DNA. The synthetic virus, which they detail in a new paper posted to the preprint server biorXiv, could help more labs develop drugs, vaccines, and diagnostic tests for the coronavirus. But the ability to quickly make a virus from scratch also raises concerns that the process could be used to make biological weapons.

Scientists typically study a virus by isolating it from a sick patient’s cells and growing it in a lab dish. But researchers have struggled to get their hands on the coronavirus. When an outbreak of a disease happens far away, it can take months for labs to get access to physical samples.

In these situations, researchers might turn to a synthetic version of a virus, also known as an infectious clone, so they can start studying it sooner. Creating a synthetic version can be a more practical option than ordering a dangerous virus through the mail, and it allows researchers to sidestep a lot of regulatory hoops. There are import rules and special permits involved in shipping and acquiring pathogens.

“Collectively, all those things can take a tremendous amount of time,” says David Evans, a virologist at the University of Alberta whose team raised alarm in 2017 for making a synthetic version of the extinct horsepox virus, a relative of the smallpox virus. “If you want to start working with the virus as quickly as possible, it’s sometimes faster and simpler just to make it yourself.”

To make a virus, you need instructions on how to assemble it. On January 10, a Chinese group provided a blueprint of the virus to scientists around the world by publishing a draft of the coronavirus genome on an open-access site. The Swiss team behind the new paper, led by virologist Volker Thiel, immediately got to work. They placed an order of coronavirus DNA with GenScript, a New Jersey-based company that makes and sells synthetic genetic material to researchers. Companies like GenScript print out DNA in short fragments that need to be assembled into a full genome.

Three weeks later, the Swiss team had most of the DNA fragments they needed to start reconstructing the coronavirus genome. Sometimes biologists do this by hand, which can take a lot of time. To speed this up, the team inserted these fragments into brewer’s yeast cells, which assembled the DNA fragments like puzzle pieces using a natural process called recombination. This process formed the coronavirus genome within the yeast.

“It worked perfectly, like a Swiss watch.”

Next, the researchers needed to convert the coronavirus genome from DNA to a related molecule called RNA (coronavirus is an RNA virus, meaning its genetic material is RNA rather than DNA). After that, they made copies of the synthetic virus and found that the virus particles could infect monkey cells — a stand-in for human cells. This showed that the synthetic coronavirus was a faithful copy of the original.

Altogether, the technique took a week after the team got the DNA in the mail.

“It worked perfectly, like a Swiss watch,” says Jörg Jores, an author on the paper and director of the Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology at the University of Bern.

Angela Rasmussen, a virologist at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health, says having a synthetic replica of the virus can help researchers figure out how to stop its spread.

“Having the virus itself is really critical to designing and testing drugs that can potentially ameliorate the viral infection,” she says. Researchers can also use genetic engineering to tweak the virus to see whether certain mutations make it more or less harmful. Having safer versions is particularly helpful so that researchers don’t get infected while studying the virus, says Rasmussen.

Jores says it cost about $30,000 to purchase the DNA fragments, and in a few years, it will probably be even cheaper. DNA synthesizing used to be expensive and laborious, but companies like GenScript, Integrated DNA Technology, and Twist Bioscience have automated the process.

The ability to quickly and cheaply synthesize DNA has led to fears that scientists could brew up genetically engineered pathogens, which could escape from the lab and infect the public. Rasmussen, however, says people shouldn’t worry too much about that possibility because research to make a virus more dangerous, known as gain of function research, is highly regulated. Thiel’s team had special permission from the Swiss government to carry out its research in a high-containment lab that has specific safety requirements.

“It’s not like somebody could go into their lab one day and say, ‘I’m going to modify this virus clone to make it more transmissible,’” she says.

In 2014, the U.S. government suspended similar research after lab workers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were potentially exposed to live anthrax and employees at the Food and Drug Administration came across forgotten vials of the smallpox vaccine. A few years before, two research groups announced that they had made the H5N1 bird flu more contagious in ferrets. In 2017, the government released new guidelines for these types of experiments. Now, scientists proposing such research must go through an extensive review to get approval.

Such gain of function research could help public health experts take measures to prevent and react to pandemics. Scientists first made a synthetic virus in 2002, when they reconstructed a live polio virus using chemicals and publicly available genetic information. That work was actually funded by the Pentagon as part of a program to develop biowarfare countermeasures.

With the rise of unregulated do-it-yourself biology and citizen science labs, some worry that inventive biohackers could cook up deadly pathogens in their garages and accidentally or intentionally release them. But Evans doesn’t think that’s likely.

“It’s still not technically that easy,” he says. “It takes a lot of experimental skill, which is not obvious from reading these papers.” He’s more concerned that a state actor would use synthetic biology to create a bioweapon in the lab and release it to an enemy population. “A government or a government laboratory well-equipped with knowledgeable scientists could replicate all of this stuff.” As of now, there is no evidence that the current outbreak is the result of weaponization.

Companies that print and sell DNA provide one check for potential bad actors. DNA synthesis companies have come together to establish some ground rules on who they sell DNA to and what sequences of DNA they sell. They screen customers and vet gene orders so that sequences of dangerous pathogens don’t end up in the wrong hands. Only authorized labs are able to obtain DNA to make the most lethal ones.

But as synthesizing DNA gets increasingly easier, faster, and cheaper, many labs could soon have the ability to print DNA in-house, making the possibility of creating artificial pathogens a lot more feasible.


What is the workplace of a Biologist like?

Most biologists are employed by governmental agencies, universities, or private industry laboratories. Many biologists at universities are also professors, and spend most of their time teaching students research methods, assisting with the development of the students' projects, as well as working on their own projects.

Biological scientists employed by private industries and by the government are able to focus more on their own personal projects and those assigned by their superiors. Some examples of biologists likely to be working in private industries are zoologists and ecologists, who could be employed by zoos and environmental agencies.

The area of biology that one is employed in will determine if more time will be spent in the laboratory or outside in the field. Histotechnologists, for example, work in a laboratory environment, as their work involves preparing tissues for microscopic examination. Botanists, ecologists, and zoologists, on the other hand, spend a lot of their time in the field, studying plants and animals in various climates and habitats while often living in primitive conditions.

In general, most biological scientists do not experience much in the way of dangerous situations. Those studying dangerous or toxic organisms have a series of special precautions they take to prevent contamination and any possibility of spreading viruses or bacteria.


Insights into the Fundamental Elements of Life

Our cell biology researchers collaborate with molecular, structural, genetic, developmental and evolutionary biologists as well as experts in genomics, genetics, virology, infectious disease, computational biology, pathology and clinical research.

Many Fred Hutch scientists seek a deeper understanding of fundamental cellular structures. Structures inside cells influence everything from individual cell movement to an organism’s metabolism. They include the cytoskeleton, a dynamic internal protein network that gives cells their shape and their ability to move — a key function that spreading cancer cells can turn to their advantage. Our researchers also study how cells package and organize their DNA, which influences gene expression, and how the shape of a nerve cell’s membrane affects communication between neurons.

Our investigators also study fundamental cellular processes that cancer cells often co-opt. For example, stem cells can either renew themselves or turn into specialized cells. Cancer cells can often acquire “stem-like” properties that allow them to grow unfettered. Our researchers study normal and cancer stem cells, as well as characteristics of early-developing organs that tumors can adopt. Other processes they study in the context of health and disease include how cells adhere to and communicate with one another and how they build proteins.


Major Areas of Research

  • Viral entry into cells
  • Regulation of viral and host gene expression
  • Mechanisms of viral DNA replication
  • Biogenesis of viral proteins and particles
  • Actions of viral growth factors and immune defense molecules
  • Determinants of viral virulence and pathogenicity
  • Generation of MHC class I peptides
  • Specificity and function of antiviral antibodies
  • Development of recombinant expression vectors, candidate vaccines, and antiviral agents
  • Wide range of DNA and RNA viruses, including human/simian immunodeficiency viruses, poxviruses, herpesviruses, papillomaviruses, coronaviruses, influenza viruses, alphaviruses and flaviviruses
  • Wide range of expertise, including molecular biology, cell biology, cellular immunology, humoral immunology, carcinogenesis, recombinant viruses, vaccines, viral pathogenesis, and the microbiome

The Laboratory of Viral Diseases includes the following principal investigators, staff scientists, and/or staff clinicians:

The Laboratory of Viral Diseases includes the following sections and units:


Endosomes

The endosomal network that receives the incoming viruses is composed of several different types of organelles. These are dynamic, and are involved in complicated trafficking and sorting processes that include hundreds of cellular factors. The internalized viruses are either directed to early endosomes or they move along as cargo in newly formed macropinosomes. Both endosomes and macropinosomes are mildly acidic and contain cargo that is being targeted to lysosomes for degradation. In both cases, transport involves a maturation process that prepares the vacuoles for fusion with the hydrolase-filled lysosomes. The maturation process of endosomes involves further acidification, followed by the formation of intralumenal vesicles, a switch from RAB5 to RAB7, a switch in phosphatidylinositides and, finally, microtubule-mediated movement towards the perinuclear region (reviewed by Huotari and Helenius, 2011).

Depending on the requirements, which differ between viruses (for example the pH needed to activate membrane fusion), penetration into the cytosol is triggered either in the early or in the late endosomes or macropinosomes. Thus, late penetrating viruses, unlike those that exit from early endosomes, not only depend on a further drop in pH, but also on factors that are required for the maturation process, such as RAB5, RAB7, and ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) components (Lozach et al., 2011a). For example, we have found that depletion of histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) blocks centrosome cohesion and microtubule organization (Yamauchi et al., 2011), and depletion of Cullin-3 affects endolysosomal trafficking (Huotari et al., 2012). Infection by IAV, which is a late penetrating virus, is blocked in both cases.


Biology

The Department of Biology provides academic programs leading to the B.A. or B.S. in Biology. In cooperation with the College of Education, the department offers the B.S. Ed. in Secondary Education with Emphasis in Biology and the B.A. or B.S. in Biology with Master’s Level Coursework for Secondary Teacher Certification. It also offers graduate work leading to the Master of Science and the Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Biology. Biology faculty members are engaged in teaching and research in areas ranging from cell and molecular biology to population and community studies.

Minor in Biology

Students majoring in another discipline may earn a minor in biology by completing a prescribed course of study. Unique programs can be developed to coordinate with special career objectives.

Departmental Honors

The Department of Biology offers an Honors Program to train students in conducting research in areas of biological research currently under study in the Department.

Graduate Studies

The Department of Biology offers graduate work leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in biology. Graduate students will normally work toward an M.S. or Ph.D. degree in two broad areas of biology: a) cellular, molecular, and developmental biology, or b) ecology, evolution, and systematics. Students in the M.S. and Ph.D. programs also have the opportunity to do their graduate work in collaboration with scientists at the Missouri Botanical Garden, the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, or the Saint Louis Zoo through cooperative graduate programs.

Facilities

Department facilities include research and teaching laboratories, environmental chambers, greenhouses, and a large array of supporting modern research instrumentation. Graduate research can be pursued using facilities of the Missouri Botanical Garden, the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, or the Saint Louis Zoo. Several sites within an hour of campus are suitable for regional field studies, including state parks, wildlife conservation areas, the Shaw Nature Reserve, and Washington University's Tyson Research Center. UMSL is a member of the St. Louis University Research Station Consortium that operates Lay and Reis Field Stations in Missouri and is also a member of the Organization for Tropical Studies, which operates three field stations in Costa Rica. CEIBA Biological Centre in Guyana has hosted several UMSL courses and student researchers. Student researchers work independently at research stations throughout the tropics.

Cooperative Programs

The department participates in a cooperative consortium program in biology with Washington University, Saint Louis University, Southern Illinois University-Edwardsville, and the Missouri Botanical Garden.

Program Objectives and Career Prospects

The degree program at the baccalaureate level is designed to prepare the student for further professional training in areas such as medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, plant science, conservation, and related areas or for further graduate training in research in biology.

The Undergraduate Certificates in Biotechnology and Conservation Biology are for majors interested in careers in biotechnology and associated areas and in conservation, respectively.

The Master of Science program is an extension of the undergraduate program and provides the research-oriented training and education necessary for students to enter doctoral programs in biology and develops professional biologists qualified to function in responsible technical positions. It also trains students to become effective secondary school and junior college biology teachers.

The Graduate Certificates in Biotechnology and in Tropical Biology and Conservation provides professional training in the areas of biotechnology and conservation.

The Ph.D. program prepares students to be research biologists in academics or other professional fields in ecology, evolution and systematic and cellular and molecular biology. Employment opportunities are available in college or university research and teaching, in government and public institutions such as museums, botanical gardens and conservation organizations, and in industry.

Degrees

Minors

Certificates

Courses

BIOL� Introduction to Student Research: 1-3 semester hours

Prerequisites: Minimum of four semesters of high school science and math courses and consent of the instructor. This course provides high school students an opportunity to develop individual research projects under faculty mentorship. It includes interdisciplinary lectures, demonstrations, seminars, and project guidance. Evaluation will be based on written and oral presentation of the research project and student portfolio.

BIOL� General Biology (MOTR BIOL 100): 3 semester hours

Emphasis on fundamental principles of biology. BIOL� can be applied toward fulfillment of the general education requirement in science. BIOL� does not satisfy the prerequisite requirements in other courses in biology at the 2000 level or above. Students who plan to pursue a career in medicine or one of the medical-oriented professions should enroll in BIOL� rather than BIOL�.

BIOL� General Biology Laboratory: 1 semester hour

Prerequisite: BIOL� (may be taken concurrently). This Laboratory course accompanies BIOL�. BIOL� can be used to fulfill the general education requirements in a laboratory science. BIOL� does not meet the prerequisite requirements for other courses in biology. Two and one-half hours of laboratory per week.

BIOL� Human Biology (MOTR LIFS 150): 3 semester hours

Lectures and readings concerned with the reproduction, development, genetics, functional anatomy, behavior, ecology, and evolution of the human species. Three hours lecture per week. Fulfills Science/Math requirement.

BIOL� Nutrition in Health: 3 semester hours

This course studies dietary nutrients essential for health, proper selection of foods to provide them and current issues affecting them.

BIOL� Human Physiology and Anatomy I: 4 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� or equivalent or consent of instructor. This course covers the basic aspects of the structure of the healthy human body and how it functions. Special emphasis is on how the human body adapts itself to its environment and how changes affect physiological activities. Three hours lecture and two hours laboratory per week.

BIOL� Human Physiology and Anatomy II: 4 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL�. A continuation of BIOL�. A study of the basic aspects of human physiology and anatomy. Three hours lecture and two hours laboratory per week.

BIOL� General Microbiology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL� or its equivalent. A survey of microbiology structure, genetics, and physiology. Special emphasis will be placed on the transmission and control of such organisms as it relates to the maintenance of human health. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIOL� Environmental Biology: 3 semester hours

An examination of the biological basis of current environmental problems, with emphasis upon resources, energy, pollution and conservation. Three hours lecture per week. Fulfills Science/Math requirement.

BIOL� Applied Environmental Sciences: 4 semester hours

In a combined lecture/laboratory setting, students will get hands-on experience collecting and testing environmental samples for abiotic factors such as contaminants, and experimentally assessing the impact of those contaminants on the biological communities contained within the samples. Important approaches include global positioning and information technologies, microscopy, microbiological techniques, genomics, and quantitative analytical measures for assessing the physical, biological and chemical properties of collected samples.

BIOL� Introduction to the Biology Major: 1 semester hour

Prerequisites: Biology major or consent of the instructor. This course is an orientation to the field of biology for majors and for students who are considering declaring the major. This course introduces students to concepts, skills, and practices that are essential for success as a Biology major and must be completed by all freshman and transfer Biology majors during their first semester of study at UMSL.

BIOL� Introductory Biology: Organisms and the Environment (MOTR BIOL 150L): 5 semester hours

Prerequisites: A minimum of high school chemistry, ENGL� or equivalent (may be taken concurrently), and placement into college algebra or higher. Required for students intending to major in biology or take specified biology courses at the 2000 level or above. This course presents an introduction to some of the principles of biology and scientific methodology applied to the organism and supraorganism levels of biology. Topics to be covered include: ecology, evolution, diversity, and population biology. Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

BIOL� Introductory Biology: From Molecules to Organisms (MOTR BIOL 150L): 5 semester hours

Prerequisites: A minimum of high school chemistry and MATH� ENGL� or equivalent (may be taken concurrently). Required for students intending to major in biology or take specified biology courses at the 2000 level or above. This course presents and introduction to some of the principles of biology and scientific methodology applied to the molecular/ cellular through organ system levels of organization. Topics include: cell structure, metabolism, reproduction, heredity and major physiological processes regulated by organ systems. Three hours of lecture, three and one half hours of lab, and one hour of discussion per week.

BIOL� Introductory Topics in Biology: 1-5 semester hours

Prerequisites: Consent of Instructor. The topics will vary each semester. See online course schedule for topics. Credit arranged. May be taken more than once for credit if topics are different. The applicability toward a Biology degree is dependent on the topic.

BIOL� Evolution for Everyone: 3 semester hours

Evolution for Everyone explores the development of our current understanding by examining modern and ancient controversies, and by studying major processes by which change occurs. Lectures will present overviews and many examples on topics in history, mechanisms, and outcome of evolutionary change, and students will participate in classroom and online discussions based on readings, computer exercises, and data collection and analysis. Course may not be applied towards major in Biology. Not eligible for credit with BIOL� (Introduction to Evolution) required for Biology majors.

BIOL� Introduction to Inquiry Approaches to STEM Education (STEP I): 1 semester hour

Same as CHEM�, PHYSICS�, MATH�, and SEC ED�. Prerequisites: Concurrent enrollment BIOL�, BIOL�, CHEM�, CHEM�, PHYSICS�, PHYSICS�, MATH�, or MATH� or have a declared STEM major. Students who want to explore teaching careers become familiar with lesson plan development by writing, teaching and observing lessons in a local school class. Students build and practice inquiry-based lesson design skills and become familiar with and practice classroom management in the school setting. As a result of the STEP I experiences students should be able to decide whether to continue to explore teaching as a career and ultimately finishing the remainder of the WE TEACH MO curriculum leading to teacher certification. The classroom observations and teaching represent a major field component and requires at least one two hour block of free time during the school day once a week.

BIOL� Designing Inquiry-Based STEM Experiences (STEP II): 1 semester hour

Same as CHEM�, PHYSICS�, MATH�, and SEC ED�. Prerequisites: BIOL�, CHEM�, PHYSICS�, MATH�, or SEC ED�. Students explore teaching careers, become familiar with STEM school setting through observing and discussing the school environment and by developing and teaching inquiry-based lessons.

BIOL� Genetics: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� (majors must also take BIOL�) MATH�, and CHEM� or (CHEM� plus CHEM�). Fundamental principles of inheritance, including classical genetic theory as well as recent advances in the molecular basis of heredity. Three hours of lecture per week. Fulfills Science/Math requirement.

BIOL� Genetics Laboratory: 2 semester hours

Prerequisites: Concurrent registration in BIOL�, or consent of instructor. Laboratory to accompany BIOL�. Three and one-half hours of organized laboratory time per week. Students may need to return to the laboratory at unscheduled times to complete some exercises.

BIOL� Ecology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and BIOL�. This course examines the relationships between living organisms and their environment.

BIOL� Ecology Laboratory: 2 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� (may be taken concurrently) a general statistics course is strongly recommended. This laboratory course analyzes environmental factors influencing the abundance and distribution of living organisms. Some classes will be held at field sites in and around St. Louis.

BIOL� Vertebrate Anatomy: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and BIOL�. Development, structure, function, interrelationships, and zoogeography of vertebrate animals with particular attention to phylogenetic aspects. Three hours of lecture per week. Fulfills Science/Math requirement.

BIOL� Vertebrate Anatomy Laboratory: 2 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL� (may be taken concurrently). Laboratory to accompany BIOL�. Morphological analysis and systematic survey of major vertebrate groups. Overview of the vertebrate life forms and their adaptations to habitats and resources. Three and one-half hours of laboratory per week.

BIOL� Microbiology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� (majors must also take BIOL�), MATH�, and CHEM�. Study of microorganisms, their metabolism, genetics, and their interaction with other forms of life. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIOL� Microbiology Laboratory: 2 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL� (may be taken concurrently). Experimental studies and procedures of microbiological techniques. Three and one-half hours of organized laboratory time per week. Students will need to return to the laboratory at unscheduled times to complete some exercises.

BIOL� Biology of Plants: 5 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and BIOL�. A general discussion of the plant groups from algae through angiosperms. Plant morphology, physiology, reproduction and ecology will be discussed in lecture (three hours per week). The laboratory (three and one half hours per week) involves examination of representatives of the plant kingdom and experimentation in plant physiology and genetics. Fulfills both a lecture and laboratory requirement.

BIOL� Contemporary Topics in Biology: 1-5 semester hours

Prerequisites: Consent of instructor. The topics will vary each semester. See course schedule online for topics. Credit arranged. May be taken more than once for credit if topics are different.

BIOL� Experiential Practicum in Biosciences: 1 semester hour

Prerequisites: Consent of Biology Curriculum Committee. Credit for off-campus bioscience projects providing extraordinary student experience and service to a community in need.

BIOL� Animal Behavior: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and BIOL�. The study of invertebrate and vertebrate behavior, including neurophysiological, hormonal, developmental, genetic, ecological and evolutionary aspects of behavior behavior interactions within and between populations. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIOL� Animal Behavior Laboratory: 2 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� (may be taken concurrently). Observational and experimental studies of animal behavior in the field and laboratory. Three and one-half hours of formal laboratory time per week, but additional time may be required for independent projects. Some activities involve field trips or trips to the St. Louis Zoo.

BIOL� Conservation Biology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and BIOL�. Introduction to the principles and theories of conservation biology. Course topics include biodiversity, extinctions, population modeling, habitat fragmentation, conservation area management, restoration ecology, and social science elements of conservation strategies. Class sessions will include lectures, discussions, and simulation exercises. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIOL� Conservation Biology Laboratory: 2 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL� (recommended to be taken concurrently). Laboratory to accompany BIOL�. Laboratory will include computer simulations of conservation problems using existing software, 2-3 field trips to local conservation projects, and field interviews with governmental and nongovernmental agencies. Three and one-half hours of laboratory per week.

BIOL� Evolution: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, BIOL�, BIOL�, and MATH�. This course covers the theory, events, and processes of organic evolution.

BIOL� Cell Biology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, BIOL�, CHEM�, and MATH�. This course examines the organization and basic processes of cells including tissues, organelles, glycolysis, respiration, photosynthesis, trafficking, cytoskeleton, signal transduction, and cell division.

BIOL� Histology and Microtechniques: 5 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� (majors must also take BIOL�), BIOL� recommended. The basic principles of histology. A survey of basic tissues and organ systems. Techniques associated with preparation of animal tissues for light microscopic studies. Three hours of lecture and 3 1/2 hours of laboratory per week. (Additional lab hours arranged). Fulfills both a lecture and a laboratory requirement.

BIOL� Undergraduate Internship in Biotechnology: 1-4 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, BIOL�, and CHEM� and CHEM� and consent of instructor. Concurrent enrollment in CHEM� or higher is strongly encouraged. A 2.5 GPA and enrollment in the undergraduate Biotechnology Certificate Program is required. Internship will consist of a period of observation, experimentation and on-the-job training in a biotechnology laboratory. The laboratory may be industrial or academic. Credit will be determined by the number of hours a student works each week and in consultation between the intern's supervisor and instructor. Internship assignments will be commensurate with the education and experience of the student. Two credits may be used to fulfill the lab requirement.

BIOL� Vertebrate Physiology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and BIOL� and CHEM� or CHEM� plus CHEM�. Basic functional aspects of organ systems in relation to the physiochemical properties of protoplasm. Three hours lecture per week. Fulfills Science/Math requirement.

BIOL� Vertebrate Physiology Lab: 2 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL� (may be taken concurrently). Instrumental and experimental studies in physiology. Three and one-half hours laboratory per week.

BIOL� Special Topics in Biology: 1-5 semester hours

Prerequisites: Consent of instructor. The topics will vary each semester. See course schedule online for topics. Credit arranged. May be taken more than once for credit if topics are different.

BIOL� Behavioral Ecology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL� (BIOL� recommended). The evolution and ecology of animal behavior. Topics include the theoretical framework for making predictions, foraging, decision making, sensory ecology, sexual selection, mating systems, sociality and groups, cooperation, signal use and communication. Three hours of lecture per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Biometry: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: MATH� and a minimum of 15 hours in biology. Reviews descriptive, analytical, and experimental methods useful for the statistical study of biological phenomena. Students will develop the skills needed to better appreciate and evaluate the published literature, as well as the ability to design their own research programs. Topics include: the collection and summarization of biological observations development, design, and testing of hypothesis analysis and presentation of data. Three hours of lecture per week. Fulfills the statistics requirement for the B.A. or B.S. degree in biology.

BIOL� Population Biology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL� (BIOL� recommended). Introduces concepts and mathematical models of population ecology and population genetics. By integrating the ecology and genetics of populations, the course goal is to understand the processes that contribute to microevolution of populations. Topics include: demography, metapopulation biology, natural selection, migration, gene flow, and genetic drift. Three hours of lecture per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Applications of Geographic Information Systems: 5 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, BIOL� or equivalent, and consent of instructor. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are sophisticated computer-based systems for analysis, capture, presentation, and maintenance of geographically referenced data. This course provides a foundation in using GIS for spatial analysis. Although biological examples are primarily used, examples from a range of disciplines are employed to emphasize the use of GIS as a tool to support analysis and decision-making. Students will have hands-on use of GIS software during each session. An independent research project applying the spatial analysis tools learned in GIS to biological research will be required. Five hours of combined lecture and computer operations, plus 2-3 hours of open lab per week. Fulfills both a lecture and a laboratory requirement. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Tropical Ecology and Conservation: 3 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL�, BIOL�, BIOL�, or equivalent. This course will cover research areas in tropical population, community and ecosystem ecology, with emphasis on inter-species and environment-organism interactions, population control factors, and genetic structure of populations. Topics include the current status and causes of tropical habitat destruction, ongoing attempts to manage those habitats, and development of strategies leading to sustained use of non-renewable resources. Three hours of lecture per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Field Biology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisite: Three biology courses and consent of instructor. Intensive study of the flora and fauna of selected natural areas of North America, including an extended field trip. Details of the field trip and course schedule will be posted in the Biology department preceding registration for the term in which the course will be offered. Students will be required to pay costs of travel and of the field trip. This is a laboratory course appropriate for advanced undergraduates and non-thesis Master of Science students.

BIOL� Global Climate Change: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� or consent of instructor. Topics included are fundamental physical, meteorological, and biological circumstances of global climate change, as well as predictions of its future effects on biological diversity, including humans, and how those estimates are made. In addition, basic environmental economics and politics of climate change at local and global levels will be included. The course will be taught as a series of lectures and discussions led by guest experts in each of the subdisciplines covered. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Practicum in Conservation: 2 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and consent of instructor. This course is generally restricted to students officially enrolled in the Certificate Program in Conservation Biology. The course provides practical experience with conservation or environmental agencies. Specific placement will be selected according to student's interests and career goals as well as availability of agency openings. Course requirements include practical experience and final report on practicum experience.

BIOL� Ornithology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and junior standing. Introduction to avian biology and ecology. Material to be covered will include basic adaptations of anatomy, physiology, and behavior of birds. There will be a strong emphasis on avian ecology and conservation. Specific topics will include flight, reproductive behavior, migration, foraging behavior, community structure, and current conservation concerns. The diversity of birds will be emphasized through comparisons between temperate and tropical regions. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIOL� Ornithology Laboratory: 2 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� (may be taken concurrently), or consent of instructor. This course will introduce students to methods of identifying and studying birds. Labs will almost entirely be comprised of field trips to local areas and will emphasize diversity of birds, adaptions shown by different groups, and means of identification, particularly of birds found in Missouri. Field projects will focus on techniques for censusing birds, sampling foraging behavior, and studying habitat selection. Indoor periods will cover internal and external anatomy of birds. Slides and field trips to the St Louis Zoo will be used to survey the diversity of birds worldwide. Three and one-half hours of laboratory per week. Longer (e.g., Saturday) field trips will be made when appropriate.

BIOL� Entomology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, BIOL�, 9 additional hours of biology and upper-division standing. Development, structure, function, behavior and ecology of insects, including a systematic survey of the orders of Insecta. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIOL� Entomology Laboratory: 2 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� (may be taken concurrently). Laboratory to accompany BIOL�. Studies of the morphology, physiology, and behavior of insects to give a sampling of biological studies of the class Insecta. Formation of a collection of insects, comprising a systematic survey of orders and principal families, will be an intregal part of the course and will require additional time beyond the official lab hours. Three and one-half hours of lab per week.

BIOL� Developmental Biology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and BIOL�. A study of the basic principles that shape the embryonic and post-embryonic development of animals with an emphasis on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Specific topics include fertilization, determination of cell fate and differentiation, cell migration, establishment of the body plan, formation of selected organs and organ systems, stem cells, and limb regeneration. Environmental influences on development and the impact of developmental biology on modern medicine are also discussed. Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Flowering Plant Families: Phylogeny and Diversification: 5 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, BIOL� and junior standing or consent of instructor. Focusing on the flowering plant families of North America, the aim of the course is to give an understanding of their phylogeny and diversification. Student will also gain an understanding of plant morphology and anatomy, a basis for further developing their knowledge of plants. Three hours of lecture and three to four hours of laboratory per week. Students may need to return to the laboratory at unscheduled times.

BIOL� Evolution of Cognition: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� or consent of instructor BIOL� and PSYCH� are strongly recommended. The evolutionary ecology of animal cognitive abilities. Topics include learning, memory, perception, navigation, and communication from an evolutionary perspective. The focus is on cognitive abilities as adaptations, which have evolved to solve specific environmental problems. Topics include empirical methods for assessing cognitive ability, experimental design, theoretical approaches for generating predictions, and the parsimonious interpretation of data. Two hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week.

BIOL� Bacterial Pathogenesis: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and BIOL�. Examination of the strategies bacterial pathogens use to infect animals. Topics include host immune responses to infection, bacterial virulence factors, regulation of bacterial virulence, and the cellular and molecular approaches used to study hostparasite interactions. Three hours of lecture per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Molecular Biology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and CHEM�. This course is a survey of the principles of molecular biology, with emphasis on understanding the genetic regulation of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis and function in eukaryotic cells.

BIOL� Synthetic Biology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, BIOL�. A study of the molecular biology of microbial cells, in the context of synthetic biological systems. Topics include DNA replication, transcription, translation, gene regulation and protein structure as well as aspects of genetic engineering as they apply to the construction of novel biological systems. Following an introduction to the design of biological parts used in synthetic biology, students read, discuss and present recent journal articles in order to learn about current advances and applications of synthetic biology. Three hours of lecture per week. Students may not receive credit for BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Biotechnology Laboratory I: 4 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� or consent of instructor. An introduction to the fundamental concepts that underlie the field of biotechnology. Both the basic principles of molecular biology and hand-on experience with the techniques of the field will be addressed through lectures, discussions, and a series of laboratory exercises. Two hours of lecture and four hours of laboratory per week. Fulfills a laboratory requirement only may not be used to fulfill the higher level (4000-5000) lecture course requirement for the B.A. or B.S. degree in biology. Students may not receive credit for BIOL� and a comparable biotechnology course from another institution.

BIOL� Biotechnology Laboratory II: 4 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and either BIOL� or BIOL 4612, or consent of instructor. An in-depth look at theory and practice of biotechnology. Lectures and discussion will examine the underlying principles, and laboratory exercises will present hands-on experience with current techniques. One hour of lecture and six hours of laboratory per week. Fulfills a laboratory requirement only may not be used to fulfill the higher level (4000-5000) lecture course requirement for the B.A. or B.S. degree in biology. Students may not receive credit for BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Cellular Basis of Disease: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�. A study of the structural organization and processes of eukaryotic cells, focusing on how defects in cellular function lead to genetic diseases and cancer. Topics of discussion may include membrane dynamics, intracellular trafficking, signal transduction, and the cell cycle. Three hours of lecture per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Nucleic Acid Structure and Function: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and BIOL� or equivalent, or consent of instructor. A comprehensive view of the structural properties of DNA and RNA that promote molecular interactions and biological function. Topics will include the physical properties of nucleic acids, the formation and biological importance of higher order structures, RNA enzymatic activities, nucleic acid-protein interactions, and RNA metobolism. Three hours of lecture per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, BIOL�. This course will introduce molecular biology principles that govern plant growth, development, and responses to stress. This course integrates the experimental approaches of genetics, molecular biology, and biochemistry, with a specific focus on biotechnology techniques and applications. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Virology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL� and BIOL�. This first half of the course entails a comparative study of the structure, replication, and molecular biology of viruses. The second half of the course focuses on the pathogenesis, control, and evolution of animal viruses. Three hours of lecture per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Human Pathology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� or consent of the instructor. A study of disease processes as they affect the human body. The course will examine both the proximate causes and underlying mechanisms of disease. Specific conditions will be used to illustrate application of clinical approaches in determining the origin, development, and effects of a disease.

BIOL� Biochemistry: 3 semester hours

Same as: CHEM�. Prerequisites: CHEM� and either BIOL� or CHEM�. Examines the chemistry and function of cell constituents, and the interaction and conversions of intracellular substances. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and CHEM�.

BIOL� Techniques in Biochemistry: 2 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� or CHEM� (may be taken concurrently). Laboratory activities introducing fundamental qualitative and quantitative biochemical techniques. Student evaluation will be based on laboratory participation, student laboratory reports, and written examinations. Three and one-half hours of organized laboratory time per week. Students may need to return to the laboratory at unscheduled times to complete some experiments.

BIOL� Biochemistry and Biotechnology Seminar: 1 semester hour

Same as CHEM�. Prerequisites: Senior standing in the Biochemistry and Biotechnology program and consent of faculty advisor. This course will focus on selected publications related to biochemistry and biotechnology from both refereed journals and news sources. Students are expected to participate in discussions and to prepare oral and written presentations. Completion of the Major Field Achievement Test in Biochemistry & Biotechnology is a course requirement. May not be taken for graduate credit.

BIOL� Introduction to Neuroscience: 3 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL� or consent of instructor. The study of nervous systems, featuring the cellular bases of initiation and conduction fo the impulse, synaptic transmission, and the network integrative function of invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. This course emphasizes the multidisciplinary nature of the neurosciences, including anatomical, physiological and molecular approaches to understanding neural function. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIOL� Immunobiology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL� and CHEM�. The fundamental principles and concepts of immunology and immunochemistry. Emphasis on the relation of immunological phenomena to biological phenomena and biological problems. Three hours lecture per week.

BIOL� Senior Seminar: 2 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, BIOL�, BIOL�, and BIOL�, with a total of at least 30 credits in Biology and the consent of your assigned Biology Advisor. Oral and written presentation by students of selected scientific papers or articles. Students are expected to participate in discussions of oral presentations by other students. May not be taken for graduate credit.

BIOL� Research: 1-3 semester hours

Prerequisites: Consent of faculty research advisor. Research in an area selected by the student in consultation with and under the direct supervision of an UMSL biology faculty research adviser. Research opportunities are subject to availability and must be approved in advance of beginning research. The project may include the reading of pertinent literature, laboratory or field experience, including keeping of a logbook, and a summary paper and a presentation, all based on an average 8 hours per week per credit during a 15 week semester at the discretion of the instructor. Credit arranged. Course may be repeated for a total of up to 5 credit hours. A maximum of one lab requirement may be satisfied using any two BIOL� credits. Additional credits may be applied toward the total biology hours required for the biology BA or BS. May not be taken for graduate credit.

BIOL� Biology Internship: 1-3 semester hours

Prerequisites: Consent of faculty research advisor generally restricted to junior and senior standing. Research in an area selected by the student to be conducted off-campus in a lab of a professional researcher or faculty person (the internship mentor) other than those in UMSL Biology. Research opportunities are subject to availability and must be approved in advance of beginning research by an UMSL biology faculty liaison and the internship mentor. The project normally includes the reading of pertinent literature, laboratory or field experience, including keeping of a logbook, and a summary paper and a presentation, all based on an average 8 hours per week per credit during a 15 week semester. Credit arranged. This course and BIOL� may be repeated in any combination for a total of up to 5 credit hours. A maximum of one lab requirement may be satisfied using any two BIOL� and/or BIOL� credits. Additional credits may be applied toward the total biology hours required for the biology BA or BS.

BIOL� Selected Topics in Biology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: Junior standing and consent of instructor. The topic for this course will vary each semester. Topics offered for the following semester will be posted in the departmental office. This course may be repeated once if the topic is different.

BIOL� Advanced Genetics: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� or consent of instructor. This course explores advanced topics in the study of genetics, including advanced principles of inheritance, classical genetic theory, advances in understanding the nature of genetic material, and the molecular basis of heredity. Variation between individuals and populations will be considered to emphasize the effects of genetics on both medical and evolutionary questions. A particular focus will be placed on identifying, analyzing, and communicating findings from recent primary literature.

BIOL� Topics in Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics: 1 semester hour

Prerequisites: Graduate Standing. Presentation and discussion of faculty and student current research projects in behavior, ecology, evolution, and systematics. May be repeated.

BIOL� Topics in Cellular and Molecular Biology: 1 semester hour

Prerequisite: Graduate standing or consent of instructor. Presentation and discussion of student and faculty research projects and/or current research articles in molecular, cellular and developmental biology. May be repeated. Course graded on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis.

BIOL� Topics in Floristic Taxonomy: 1 semester hour

Prerequisite: BIOL� or equivalent, and graduate standing. Seminar course In systematics of higher plants, arranged In the Cronquist sequence of families, covering morphology, anatomy, palynology, biogeography, chemosystematics, cytology, and other aspects of plant classification and phylogenetics. Given at the Missouri Botanical Garden. One hour per week.

BIOL� Topics in Animal Behavior: 1 semester hour

Prerequisites: Graduate standing. Presentation and discussion of current research articles and/or student and faculty research projects in animal behavior, including ecology, evolution, genetics, and mechanisms of behavior. May be repeated.

BIOL� Biology Colloquium: 1 semester hour

Prerequisites:Graduate standing. Attendance is required for the Biology weekly seminar series, consisting of research presentations by department faculty and invited speakers. Class sessions will include discussion of scientific research and presentation practices.

BIOL� Advanced Tropical Resource Ecology Field Studies: 2 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL 5122 (may be taken concurrently). The field component to the lecture and seminar course. Examines the patters of use and exploitation of resources in the topics by humans in the context of the theories of behavioral ecology. Two weeks of intensive field research and lectures in Guyana, South America during the second and third weeks of Summer Session I (trip costs to be borne by the student). Students may not receive credit for both BIOL 3123 and BIOL�. Offered in odd numbered years.

BIOL� Graduate Research Writing Workshop in Biology: 1 semester hour

Prerequisites: Graduate standing. This hands-on course is designed to give Biology graduate students practical assistance and advice on writing, including grant proposal content and organization, writing succinctly but clearly, and editing. The course format will include both informational lectures with discussions and working sessions focused on writing and critiquing drafts. Students are recommended to begin the class ready to write at least one aim of a grant or thesis proposal. Course is graded on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis.

BIOL� Introduction to Graduate Research in Biology: 1 semester hour

Prerequisites: Graduate standing or consent of instructor. A discussion-based class to introduce new PhD and thesis MS students to the Biology department, graduate school, and best research practices.

BIOL� Ethical Issues in Biology: 1 semester hour

Prerequisites: Graduate Standing. Using readings and discussions, students will explore ethical issues in Biology in both professional and social realms. Professional topics include authorship, grants accounting, and academic misconduct social topics include ethical foundations of basic and applied science, government regulation of science, environmental and individual protection, and current issues. Course graded on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis.

BIOL� Community Ecology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: Graduate standing and either BIOL� and BIOL� or an equivalent course. Studies of structure and organization of natural communities stressing the abundance and distribution of species, the regulation of species diversity, and the evolution of demographic parameters in populations.

BIOL� Advanced Evolution: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� or graduate standing. Explores advanced topics in the study of adaptation and the origin of species. Covers phenomena both within populations (e.g. natural selection, sexual selection, and molecular evolution) and between populations (e.g. speciation, coevolution, competition, gene flow, biogeography, and comparative phylogenetics), with a particular focus on recent primary literature.

BIOL� Theory of Systematics: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, BIOL� and at least one course beyond the introductory level dealing with animal, plant, or microbial diversity (such as BIOL�, BIOL�, BIOL�, BIOL 4482, BIOL�, BIOL�, BIOL�) or consent of instructor. Course investigates the theory of classification, phylogenetic analysis, systematic biology, and their relation to systematic practice. Will cover goals and schools of systematics, characters and homology, analysis of molecular and morphological data and underlying assumptions, species concepts, classification, naming, and the connections between evolutionary biology and systematics. The course is appropriate for upper level undergraduates & graduate students in all disciplines, animal, plant, and microbial, as an introduction to systematic methods. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIOL� Applied Bioinformatics: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� or BIOL� or consent of instructor. This course provides a survey of the various computational approaches that can be used to solve biological problems. Specific attention will be focused on biological databases and methods for using and interpreting database information, sequence alignments, functional genomics, structure prediction, high-throughput analyses, and proteomics. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIOL� Practicum in Science in Business: 1-2 semester hours

Same As CHEM�. Prerequisites: Graduate standing and enrollment in a Professional Science emphasis in Chemistry, Biochemistry & Biotechnology, or Biology. Students will integrate and apply their scientific expertise to a practical, business-related problem. The course will emphasize interdisciplinary team-work as well as both written and oral communication skills.

BIOL� Internship in Sciences in Business: 1-2 semester hours

Same As CHEM�. Prerequisites: Graduate standing and enrollment in a Professional Science emphasis area in Chemistry, Biochemistry & Biotechnology, or Biology. The internship will consist of a period of on-the-job training at a local company. Credit hours will be determined by the number of hours the student works each week and in consultation between the intern's supervisor and the course instructor. Internship assignments will be commensurate with the education and experience of the student, with an emphasis on work at the interface between the scientific and business components of the company. A written report describing the internship project is required.

BIOL� Advanced Topics in Behavioral Ecology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL� (BIOL� is recommended). The evolution and ecology of animal behavior. Topics include the theoretical framework for making predictions, foraging, decision making, sensory ecology, sexual selection, mating systems, sociality and groups, cooperation, and signal use and communication. Three hours of lecture per week. Assignments will include a heavy emphasis on theory and modelling approaches to behavioral ecology. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Advanced Population Biology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� (BIOL� recommended). Introduces concepts and mathematical models of population ecology and population genetics. By integrating the ecology and genetics of population, the course goal is to understand the processes that contribute to microevolution of populations. Topics include: demography, metapopulation biology, natural selection, migration, gene flow, and genetic drift. A discussion section will focus on mathematical elements of population biology models. Three hours of discussion per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Applications of Geographic Information Systems: 5 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, BIOL� or equivalent, and consent of instructor. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are sophisticated computer-based systems for analysis, capture, presentation, and maintenance of geographically referenced data. This course provides a foundation in using GIS for spatial analysis. Although biological examples are primarily used, examples from a range of disciplines are employed to emphasize the use of GIS as a tool to support analysis and decision-making. Students will have hands-on use of GIS software using Windows 2000/NT based workstations during each session. An independent research project applying the spatial analysis tools learned in GIS to biological research will be required. Five hours of combined lecture and computer operations, plus 2-3 hours of open lab per week.

BIOL� Advanced Tropical Ecology and Conservation: 3 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL�, BIOL�, or BIOL�, or their equivalent. This course will cover research areas in tropical population, community and ecosystem ecology, with emphasis on inter-species and environment-organism interactions, population control factors, and genetic structure of populations. Topics include the current status and causes of tropical habitat destruction, ongoing attempts to manage those habitats, and development of strategies leading to sustained use of non-renewable resources. A research proposal designed to investigate a current topic in tropical ecology will be required. Students may nor receive credit for BIOL� and BIOL�. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIOL� Public Policy of Conservation and Sustainable Development: 3 semester hours

Same as POL SCI�.Prerequisite: Graduate standing in Biology or Political Science and consent of instructor. Prior course in ecology recommended. This course will introduce the student to concepts and techniques for formulating. implementing, and analyzing public policy with an emphasis on environmental concerns, conservation, and sustainable development. The course will be team taught by a political scientist and a biologist. Course materials will include case studies that demonstrate the special problems of environmental policymaking in developing and developed economies.

BIOL� Advanced Global Climate Change: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: Graduate Standing or permission of the instructor. We will cover the fundamental physical, meteorological, and biological circumstances of global climate change, as well as predictions of its future effects on biological diversity, including humans, and how those estimates are made. We will also cover basic environmental economics and politics of climate change at local and global levels. The course will be taught as a series of lectures and discussions led by guest experts in each of the subdisciplines covered. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Internship in Conservation Biology: 1-4 semester hours

Prerequisite: BIOL� or BIOL 6212 and consent of the director of graduate studies in biology. Internships will consist of a period of study, observation and on-the-job training at a conservation or environmental agency. Specific placements will be selected according to student's interests and career goals. Internships may vary from 2 weeks to 4 months in duration.

BIOL� Advanced Developmental Biology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and BIOL�. A study of the basic principles that shape the embryonic and post-embryonic development of animals with an emphasis on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Specific topics include fertilization, determination of cell fate and differentiation, cell migration, establishment of the body plan, formation of selected organs and organ systems, stem cells, and limb regeneration. Environmental influences on development and the impact of developmental biology on modern medicine are also discussed. Three hours of lecture/discussion per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Advanced Evolution of Cognition: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and BIOL�, or consent of instructor PSYCH� strongly recommended. The evolutionary ecology of animal cognitive abilities. Topics include learning, memory, perception, navigation, and communication from an evolutionary perspective. The focus is on cognitive abilities as adaptations, which have evolved to solve specific environmental problems. Topics include empirical methods for assessing cognitive ability, experimental design, theoretical approaches for generating predictions, and the parsimonious interpretation of data. Two hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Advanced Bacterial Pathogenesis: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and BIOL�. Examination of the strategies bacterial pathogens use to infect animals. Topics include host immune responses to infection, bacterial virulence factors, regulation of bacterial virulence, and the cellular and molecular approaches used to study hostparasite interactions. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�. Students will be required to give an oral presentation and/or write an extra paper on a topic relevant to the course. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIOL� Advanced Molecular Biology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and CHEM�, or consent of instructor. This course covers advanced principles of molecular biology, with an emphasis on primary literature. Students may be required to give an oral presentation and/or write papers on a topic relevant to the course. Students may not receive graduate credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Advanced Synthetic Biology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, BIOL�. A study of the molecular biology of microbial cells, in the context of synthetic biological systems. Topics include DNA replication, transcription, translation, gene regulation and protein structure as well as aspects of genetic engineering as they apply to the construction of novel biological systems. Following an introduction to the design of biological parts used in synthetic biology, students read, discuss and present recent journal articles in order to learn about current advances and applications of synthetic biology. Three hours of lecture per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Advanced Biotechnology Laboratory II: 4 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and either BIOL� or BIOL 4612, or consent of instructor. An in-depth look at the theory and practice of biotechnology. Lectures and discussion will examine the underlying principles, and laboratory exercises will present hands-on experience with current techniques. One hour of lecture and six hours of laboratory per week. Students will be required to give an oral presentation and/or write an extra paper on a topic relevant to the course. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL� or any course previously called Techniques in Molecular Biology or Advanced Techniques in Molecular Biology.

BIOL� Practical Next-Generation Sequencing: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: Consent of instructor. This is a laboratory course in practical next-generation sequencing. Roughly one-half of the course will focus on bench-top methods for generating sequencing libraries from total RNA as well as the use of next-generation sequencing instruments. The second half of the course will focus on computational methods for analyzing sequencing data, including data visualization and coding.

BIOL� Advanced Cellular Basis of Disease: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, or consent of instructor. A study of the structural organization and processes of eukaryotic cells, focusing on how defects in cellular function lead to genetic diseases and cancer. Topics of discussion may include membrane dynamics, intracellular trafficking, signal transduction, and the cell cycle. Three hours of lecture per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Advanced Nucleic Acid Structure and Function: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL� and BIOL� or equivalent, or consent of instructor. A comprehensive view of the structural properties of DNA and RNA that promote molecular interactions & biological function. Topics will include the physical properties of nucleic acids, the formation and biological importance of higher order structures, RNA enzymatic activities, nucleic acid-protein interactions, and RNA metobolism. Three hours of lecture and one hour of discussion per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Advanced Plant Biology and Biotechnology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: Graduate standing. This course will introduce molecular biology principles that govern plant growth, development, and responses to stress. This course integrates the experimental approaches of genetics, molecular biology, and biochemistry, with a specific focus on biotechnology techniques and applications. Student may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Advanced Virology: 3 semester hours

Prerequisites: BIOL�, BIOL�, and graduate standing. This first half of the course entails a comparative study of the structure, replication, and molecular biology of viruses. The second half of the course focuses on the pathogenesis, control, and evolution of animal viruses. Three hours of lecture, one hour of discussion or seminar per week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL� and BIOL�.

BIOL� Graduate Internship in Biotechnology: 1-4 semester hours

Prerequisites: Graduate standing and enrollment in graduate Biotechnology Certificate Program. 6 credit hours maximum (maximum of 8 combined credit hours of BIOL� and internship) Internship will consist of period of observation, experimentation and on-the-job training in biotechnology laboratory. The laboratory may be industrial of academic. Credit will be determined by the number of hours the student works each week and in consultation between the intern's supervisor and the instructor. Internship assignments will be commensurate with the education and experience of the student.

BIOL� Graduate Seminar: 2 semester hours

Presentation and discussion of various research problems in biology. Graduate student exposure to the seminar process.

BIOL� Graduate Research in Biology: 1-10 semester hours

Research in area selected by student in consultation with faculty members.

BIOL� Graduate Research Practicum: 1-2 semester hours

Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. This course is designed for graduate students wishing to pursue research experience in an area outside their dissertation topic. The project can be techniques-oriented or focused on a specific research question. The credit hours will depend on the time commitment to the project as decided by the supervisory faculty member.

BIOL� Advanced Topics in Biology: 1-5 semester hours

Prerequisites: Graduate standing. In-depth studies of selected topics in contemporary biology. May be repeated.


Filoviral hemorrhagic fever

Clinical presentation

Following an incubation period of 2–21 days, human EBOV and MARV infections normally show an abrupt disease onset that is characterized by flu-like symptoms (fever, chills, malaise and myalgia). The subsequent signs and symptoms indicate multi-system involvement, including systemic (prostration, lethargy), gastrointestinal (anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea), respiratory (chest pain, shortness of breath, cough), vascular (conjunctival injection, postural hypotension, edema) and neurologic (headache, confusion, seizure, coma) manifestations. Hemorrhagic manifestations may develop during the peak of the illness and include petechiae, ecchymoses, uncontrolled bleeding from venipuncture sites, epistaxis and other mucosal hemorrhages, and postmortem evidence of visceral hemorrhagic effusions. In addition, there is often a maculopapular rash associated with varying degrees of erythema and desquamation. In late stages of the disease, shock, convulsions, severe metabolic disturbances and diffuse coagulopathy occur. Fatal cases develop clinical signs early during infection and demise typically occurs in the second week, mainly as a result of the consequences of hypovolemic shock. Fever is present in nonfatal cases for about 5–9 days and improvement typically coincides with when the antibody response is noted (days 7–11). Convalescence is prolonged and sometimes associated with myelitis, recurrent hepatitis, psychosis or uveitis (for reviews, see Martini and Siegert, 1971 Pattyn, 1978 Peters and LeDuc, 1999 Feldmann et al., 2003 Sanchez et al., 2007).

Pathogenesis

In general terms, human VHF resulting from EBOV and MARV infections is associated with fluid distribution problems, hypotension and coagulation disorders, and often leads to fulminant shock and subsequent multiorgan system failure (Fig. 1). Viral replication, in conjunction with immune and vascular dysregulation, is thought to play a role in disease development. Specific organ involvement includes extensive disruption of the parafollicular regions in the spleen and lymph nodes, and proliferation of the virus in mononuclear phagocytic cells has been demonstrated. A dramatic lymphopenia is thought to be the result of ‘bystander apoptosis’, most likely triggered through either mediators released from virus-activated primary target cells or by as yet unidentified interactions between host and viral products. In contrast to the activation of monocytes/macrophages, infected dendritic cells were impaired in the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the production of co-stimulatory molecules and the stimulation of T cells. The ability of filoviruses to interfere with the host innate immune system, especially the interferon (IFN) response, has been attributed to the virion proteins (VP) 35 and VP24. Overall, EBOV and MARV infections clearly affect the innate immune response but with obvious varying outcomes. In particular, the presence of IL-1β and elevated levels of IL-6 during the early symptomatic phase of the disease have been suggested as blood markers for survival, whereas the release of IL-10 and high levels of neopterin and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) during the early stage of disease are more indicative of fatal outcomes (for reviews, see Feldmann et al., 2003 Sullivan et al., 2003 Geisbert and Hensley, 2004 Geisbert and Jahrling, 2004 Mohamadzadeh et al., 2007 Sanchez et al., 2007).

The disturbance of the blood-tissue barrier, which is controlled primarily by endothelial cells, is another important factor in pathogenesis (Fig. 1). The endothelium seems to be affected directly by virus activation and lytic replication, as well as indirectly by an inflammatory response through mediators derived from primary target cells or viral expression products. These processes might explain the imbalance of fluid between the intravascular and extravascular tissue space that is observed in patients. Clinical and laboratory data also indicate disturbances in hemostasis during infection. Although thrombocytopenia is observed with severe infections in primates, studies on the role of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and consumption coagulopathy, as well as platelet and endothelial dysfunctions, are still incomplete. DIC can be observed regularly in primates and seems to be triggered by widespread endothelial cell injury as well as the release of tissue factor or thromboplastic substances (for reviews, see Feldmann et al., 2003 Sanchez et al., 2007 Aleksandrowicz et al., 2008).

Marburg hemorrhagic fever: a 42-year-old man fell ill with fever, headache and conjunctivitis which lasted 10, 5 and 4 days, respectively. Beginning on day 4, mild diarrhea occurred and he started to develop a slightly clouded awareness. The patient was admitted to hospital on day 7 post onset of symptoms, when he showed the beginning of a scarlatinoid rash, hepatitis (elevated transaminases), bloody diarrhea and encephalitis. His condition deteriorated over the next 4 days with increasingly severe bloody diarrhea, hematemesis, hematuria and cutaneous hemorrhages. The initial leucopenia converted into a leucocytosis. The fever remained throughout the disease course and ranged from 39–40.8°C. Finally the patient developed kidney failure and congestive heart failure. He succumbed to the infection on day 10 post onset of symptoms (summarized from Stille and Boehle, 1971).


How to find the next pandemic virus before it finds us

Researchers with EcoHealth Alliance in China remove a bat from a live trap. They will sample blood and feces before freeing the animal. They must wear protective gear in case the bat hosts a harmful coronavirus. They’re scouting for novel viruses that might be able to trigger a pandemic.

Share this:

More than 100 years ago, a deadly flu virus circled the globe. It caused the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919. Before it was over, this disease had sickened an estimated 500 million people. That was one-third of everyone alive at that time. Some 20 million to 50 million people died.

Flash forward to the 1970s. People in a small Central Africa village fell ill with a mystery disease. It caused bleeding that would not stop. Soon, this Ebola virus would spread to other villages.

Explainer: What is a coronavirus?

What do these famous viral outbreaks have in common with the new coronavirus disease known as COVID-19? Scientists believe animals initially carried the viruses that cause all three. Such diseases are known as zoonoses (ZOH-wuh-NO-sees). That means they started in animals and later spread to people.

Flu likely came from birds. Researchers think that bats may have been the source of the Ebola virus and of COVID-19. “Roughly 75 percent of global pandemics and disease outbreaks caused by new viruses come from wild animals,” says Tracey Goldstein. She’s a virus detective at the University of California, Davis. She hunts for new viruses among the wild animals of Africa.

When viruses pass from wildlife to people, it’s called a spillover. Fortunately, spillovers that affect more than a handful of people are rare. But big spillovers do seem to be happening more often, Goldstein and others observe.

To prevent the next big outbreak, researchers around the world are scouting the role of wild animals in the emergence of new human diseases. Scientists want to understand which groups of animals or viruses pose the biggest risks. What they learn could help us all.

Virus hunters turn to bats

Viruses are tiny, infectious particles. They “live” but aren’t technically alive. They can reproduce only within the cells of a living host. That host can be an animal, plant, bacterium or fungus.

“Humans carry lots of viruses,” notes biologist Kevin Olival. He works for a group called the EcoHealth Alliance. Based in New York City, it tries to protect people and wildlife from new diseases. Measles and common skin warts are examples of viral diseases. But not all viruses are harmful, Olival notes. Some seem to have no effect on the body. It all depends on the virus and the host.

Scientists Say: Outbreak, Epidemic and Pandemic

“All mammals carry viruses,” Olival says. “But there’s something about bats that might be a little different or unique.” That’s why he has made bats — and the viruses they carry — a focus of his research.

Bats are thought to be the host for a number of relatively new viruses that can sicken people. Among them are the Ebola virus, Marburg virus, Nipah virus and SARS-CoV-2. That last one is the coronavirus responsible for COVID-19. In 2002, another coronavirus from bats caused a massive outbreak of SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) in China. Highly contagious, SARS showed some similarities to COVID-19.

Olival and his colleagues at EcoHealth Alliance have been studying the coronaviruses hosted by bats. In China alone, they found 400 different strains of these viruses. Most of them probably wouldn’t sicken people, he says. To figure out which can, researchers will have to perform tests. That will involve taking human cells and infecting them with each virus in the lab, he explains.

See all our coverage of the new coronavirus outbreak

Or, researchers could survey people living near the bats and sample their blood. Olival’s colleagues at EcoHealth Alliance were part of a research team that did just that. They worked in rural Chinese villages. And there they found signs that mini coronavirus spillovers have been underway.

The researchers surveyed 1,585 people. They collected blood from 1,497 of them. Of these, 265 (almost one in every six people) reported some symptoms in the past year of a SARS- or flu-like disease. Nine people also tested positive for SARS-like coronaviruses that had previously been found in area bats. None of these nine remembered having any interactions with bats. However, the people who had reported SARS-like or other severe respiratory infections did say they had been exposed to wildlife and livestock.

This suggests that there may be zoonotic illness in these populations. And, the researchers add, the novel bat-linked viruses in the blood of some of these villagers offers “evidence for bat-borne coronavirus transmission to people.” Hongying Li of the EcoHealth Alliance and her colleagues reported their findings in the September 2019 Biosafety and Health.

Educators and Parents, Sign Up for The Cheat Sheet

Weekly updates to help you use Science News for Students in the learning environment

Why bats?

Researchers don’t know precisely why bats are a good host for many deadly viruses. But they have some ideas. Bats are the only mammals that fly. (Other “flying” mammals don’t fly. They only glide.) Flying is hard work. A bat needs about twice as much energy for its flight muscles as a similar-sized rodent needs to run on the ground. Putting all their energy into flying could leave bats with less energy to fight off sickness or injury. But that doesn’t happen. Scientists think that flight may have led bats to evolve stronger immune systems than other mammals.

Kevin Olival is seen here as part of a team sampling blood from bats. The blood will later be tested in the lab to see if it contains novel viruses that might one day pose a risk to people. EcoHealth Alliance

A unique immune system might mean a unique response to viruses. For instance, one recent study showed that bats’ bodies can limit the ability of a virus to trigger dangerous inflammation. That response may push viruses to evolve in ways that let them rapidly spread from cell to cell. And if that altered virus now spreads to a species without such a strong immune system, the new victim might get super-sick — and quickly.

Olival’s work has mainly taken him to Malaysia. This Southeast Asian nation has more than 100 bat species. He wants to better understand how viruses there might spread between different groups of bats. So he collects genetic information from bats and bat viruses. He uses that to build computer models. These computer programs predict which bat viruses could cause real harm in people and other animals, he explains.

Explainer: What is a computer model?

Some, such as the Nipah virus, can infect a wide range of animals. Several species of fruit bats in Southeast Asia carry that virus without getting sick. But in 1999, Nipah virus triggered a deadly outbreak among Malaysia’s pigs and pig farmers.

Goldstein’s team performed similar work with bats in Sierra Leone. That’s a country in West Africa. Her group had suspected local bats carried the Ebola virus. It was not a wild guess. In 2014 and 2015, an Ebola outbreak killed nearly 4,000 West Africans. And in January 2015, researchers linked the start of that outbreak to a two-year old boy in Guinea. He liked to play in a hollow tree where insect-eating bats used to live.

Scientists perform lab work in Tanzania to look for new viruses from wild animals. USAID PREDICT

Villagers had burned the tree down. But insect-eating bats had been linked to earlier Ebola outbreaks. That made these animals the most likely suspects in the West African outbreak, explained Fabian Leendertz at the time. He works at the Robert Koch Institute in Berlin, Germany. His team described how its detective work led to this conclusion in the January 2015 EMBO Molecular Medicine.

“We wanted to see what other viruses were circulating in bats and other animals” in Sierra Leone, recalls Goldstein. That country shares a border with Guinea. Knowing what viruses the bats hosted might help researchers better understand their viral risks to people.

The bats in Sierra Leone carried Marburg virus, Goldstein’s team discovered. It’s a close relative to the Ebola virus. Marburg causes severe bleeding in people, just as Ebola does. But Marburg has not yet sickened anyone in Sierra Leone. The researchers found the disease in bats before any people got sick. But now Goldstein’s group knows that bats pose a Marburg risk there.

Protecting people and wildlife

Figuring out where potentially dangerous viruses come from is only part of the challenge. Research also needs to identify what activities put people at risk of exposure to animal viruses, note Goldstein and Olival.

These new viral diseases aren’t passing from wild animals to people because animals are going out of their way to mess with us. “It’s because we interfere with them,” says David Quammen. He’s a science journalist. And he researched the topic for a book he wrote eight years ago, Spillover: Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic.

Ecology is a branch of biology that explains how different living things interact with each other and their surroundings. And “humans are changing ecology,” observes Hellen Amuguni. She’s a veterinarian and infectious-disease researcher at Tufts University in North Grafton, Mass. People can alter ecology by cutting down trees in forests. Or they might build roads or cities through the landscape. Some might hunt down wild animals for pets or food, explains Amuguni. All of these activities can impact the local ecology in ways that scientists are just beginning to understand.

One new study backs that up. Christine K. Johnson of UC Davis and her colleagues published it April 8 in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B. They found that hunting, wildlife trade, habitat destruction and the spread of cities into areas that were previously wildlands all increase the risk of virus spillovers. Selling wild animals at markets or shrinking their natural habitat can jumble together species that wouldn’t normally meet.

Hongying Li visits a live-animal food market in China. All animals, including these, may harbor harmful viruses. Li’s team is surveying the types of wildlife and livestock that local consumers might encounter. EcoHealth Alliance

Scientists think that the new coronavirus might have come from a live animal market in China. The virus could have passed directly from a bat to a human. Or it could have passed from a bat to another animal that was touched by a human. Wild animals kept in cages come into close contact with people and other animals. That provides more chances for viruses to spill over from one species to another.

And these events can be just as bad for wildlife as for people, points out Christopher Whittier. He’s a veterinarian at Tufts who studies human diseases that spill over into wildlife. “Understanding what viruses are in wildlife can help us to protect wild animals, too,” he notes.

The human measles virus can sicken and even kill mountain gorillas. Researchers in Africa discovered this back in 1988. People would gather to watch the apes in Rwanda’s national parks. At the time, no one knew that someone’s sneeze can infect local primates with colds and other viral diseases. And there’s plenty of opportunity for that. Each year, park gorillas and chimps were exposed to more people — and their germs — than would visit the average person’s house over a lifetime.

After scientists realized that these wild animals could get sick, practices changed. Today, people visiting wildlife parks in Africa are asked to keep at least 7 meters (23 feet) away from apes to avoid spreading germs.

When you really think about it, human health, animal health and the environment are all connected, says Olival. Preventing the next pandemic will take the work of doctors, veterinarians and scientists. Each field contributes something different to the understanding of new zoonotic diseases. “If we all come together,” he says, “we can improve the health of humans and the planet.”

Chris Whittier and his colleagues in the Central African Republic collect blood and saliva samples from this western lowland gorilla. These great apes can become infected with human viruses, including measles. The researchers’ goal is to protect gorillas, such as this adult female, from human viruses. This sedated animal will be released once she wakes up. C. Whittier/WWF

Editor’s note: This story has been updated with a new image of Olival’s work with bats. It substitutes for an image of work in Gabon.

Power Words

acute: An adjective to describe conditions, such as an illness (or its symptoms, including pain), that typically are short in duration but severe.

adaptation: (in biology) A process by which an organism or species becomes better suited to its environment. When a community of organisms does this over time, scientists refer to the change as evolution.

ape: A group of rather large “Old World” primates that lack a tail. They include the gorilla, chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans and gibbons.

average: (in science) A term for the arithmetic mean, which is the sum of a group of numbers that is then divided by the size of the group.

bacterium: (pl. bacteria) A single-celled organism. These dwell nearly everywhere on Earth, from the bottom of the sea to inside of plants and animals.

bat: A type of winged mammal comprising more than 1,100 separate species — or one in every four known species of mammal. (in sports) The usually wooden piece of athletic equipment that a player uses to forcefully swat at a ball. (v.) Or the act of swinging a machine-tooled stick or flat bat with hopes of hitting a ball.

biology: The study of living things. The scientists who study them are known as biologists.

cell: The smallest structural and functional unit of an organism. Typically too small to see with the unaided eye, it consists of a watery fluid surrounded by a membrane or wall.

colleague: Someone who works with another a co-worker or team member.

contagious: An adjective for some disease that can be spread by direct contact with an infected individual or the germs that they shed into the air, their clothes or their environment. Such diseases are referred to as contagious. Or it can be an idea or behavior that spreads from person to person.

coronavirus: A family of viruses named for the crown-like spikes on their surface (corona means “crown” in Latin). Coronaviruses cause the common cold. The family also includes viruses that cause far more serious infections, including SARS.

COVID-19: A name given the coronavirus that caused a massive outbreak of potentially lethal disease, beginning in December 2019. Symptoms included pneumonia, fever, headaches and trouble breathing.

Ebola: A family of viruses that cause a deadly disease in people. All cases have originated in Africa. Its symptoms include headaches, fever, muscle pain and extensive bleeding. The infection spreads from person to person (or animal to some person) through contact with infected body fluids. The disease gets its name from where the infection was first discovered in 1976 — communities near the Ebola River in what was then known as Zaire (and is now the Democratic Republic of Congo).

ecology: A branch of biology that deals with the relations of organisms to one another and to their physical surroundings. A scientist who works in this field is called an ecologist.

environment: The sum of all of the things that exist around some organism or the process and the condition those things create. Environment may refer to the weather and ecosystem in which some animal lives, or, perhaps, the temperature and humidity (or even the placement of things in the vicinity of an item of interest).

field: An area of study, as in: Her field of research was biology. Also a term to describe a real-world environment in which some research is conducted, such as at sea, in a forest, on a mountaintop or on a city street. It is the opposite of an artificial setting, such as a research laboratory.

forest: An area of land covered mostly with trees and other woody plants.

fruit: A seed-containing reproductive organ in a plant.

fungus: (plural: fungi) One of a group of single- or multiple-celled organisms that reproduce via spores and feed on living or decaying organic matter. Examples include mold, yeasts and mushrooms.

genetic: Having to do with chromosomes, DNA and the genes contained within DNA. The field of science dealing with these biological instructions is known as genetics. People who work in this field are geneticists.

germ: Any one-celled microorganism, such as a bacterium or fungal species, or a virus particle. Some germs cause disease. Others can promote the health of more complex organisms, including birds and mammals. The health effects of most germs, however, remain unknown.

habitat: The area or natural environment in which an animal or plant normally lives, such as a desert, coral reef or freshwater lake. A habitat can be home to thousands of different species.

host: (in biology and medicine) The organism (or environment) in which some other thing resides. Humans may be a temporary host for food-poisoning germs or other infective agents.

infection: (v. infect) A disease that can spread from one organism to another. It’s usually caused by some type of germ.

infectious: An adjective that describes a type of germ that can be transmitted to people, animals or other living things.

influenza: (also known as flu) A highly contagious viral infection of the respiratory passages causing fever and severe aching. It often occurs as an epidemic.

mammal: A warm-blooded animal distinguished by the possession of hair or fur, the secretion of milk by females for feeding their young, and (typically) the bearing of live young.

Marburg: A viral disease that causes a hemorrhagic fever. It’s caused by a filovirus, an infectious agent in the same family as Ebola.

measles: A highly contagious disease, typically striking children. Symptoms include a characteristic rash across the body, headaches, runny nose, and coughing. Some people also develop pinkeye, a swelling of the brain (which can cause brain damage) and pneumonia. Both of the latter two complications can lead to death. Fortunately, since the middle 1960s there has been a vaccine to dramatically cut the risk of infection.

model: A simulation of a real-world event (usually using a computer) that has been developed to predict one or more likely outcomes. Or an individual that is meant to display how something would work in or look on others.

muscle: A type of tissue used to produce movement by contracting its cells, known as muscle fibers. Muscle is rich in protein, which is why predatory species seek prey containing lots of this tissue.

outbreak: The sudden emergence of disease in a population of people or animals. The term may also be applied to the sudden emergence of devastating natural phenomena, such as earthquakes or tornadoes.

pandemic: An epidemic that affects a large proportion of the population across a country or the world.

primate: The order of mammals that includes humans, apes, monkeys and related animals (such as tarsiers, the Daubentonia and other lemurs).

range: The full extent or distribution of something. For instance, a plant or animal’s range is the area over which it naturally exists. (in math or for measurements) The extent to which variation in values is possible. Also, the distance within which something can be reached or perceived.

respiratory: Of or referring to parts of the body involved in breathing (called the respiratory system). It includes the lungs, nose, sinuses, throat and other large airways.

risk: The chance or mathematical likelihood that some bad thing might happen. For instance, exposure to radiation poses a risk of cancer. Or the hazard — or peril — itself. (For instance: Among cancer risks that the people faced were radiation and drinking water tainted with arsenic.)

rodent: A mammal of the order Rodentia, a group that includes mice, rats, squirrels, guinea pigs, hamsters and porcupines.

species: A group of similar organisms capable of producing offspring that can survive and reproduce.

syndrome: Two or more symptoms that together characterize a particular disease, disorder or social condition.

trade: The buying, selling or swapping of goods or services — indeed, of anything that has value. Trade groups represent the makers or sellers of these goods and services. When nations talk about trade, they usually refer to the sale or purchasing of goods with one or more countries.

veterinarian: A doctor who studies or treats animals (not humans).

virus: Tiny infectious particles consisting of RNA or DNA surrounded by protein. Viruses can reproduce only by injecting their genetic material into the cells of living creatures. Although scientists frequently refer to viruses as live or dead, in fact no virus is truly alive. It doesn’t eat like animals do, or make its own food the way plants do. It must hijack the cellular machinery of a living cell in order to survive.

wart: A common skin condition, caused by the human papillomavirus, in which a small bump appears on the skin.

wildlands: Areas where the ground cover (grasses, brush and trees) are not managed, but grow wild. Such areas tend to provide good habitat for animal wildlife.

zoonoses: (sing: zoonosis adj. zoonotic) Diseases that originate in nonhuman animals and are later contracted by people. Many zoonotic diseases also spread among a host of non-human species. For instance, the type of swine flu that sickened people throughout the world in 2009 also infected marine mammals, including sea otters.

Citations

Journal: C.K. Johnson et al. Global shifts in mammalian population trends reveal key predictors of virus spillover risk. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. April 8, 2020. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2019.2736.

Journal:​ ​​ C. Brook et al. Accelerated viral dynamics in bat cell lines, with implications for zoonotic emergence. eLife. Published online February 3, 2020. doi: 10.7554/eLife.48401.

Journal: B.R. Amman et al. Isolation of Angola-like Marburg virus from Egyptian rousette bats from West Africa. Nature Communications. Vol. 11, January 24, 2020. doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-14327-8.

Journal: P. Daszak, et al. A strategy to prevent future epidemics similar to the 2019-nCoV outbreak. Biosafety and Health. Vol. 2, March 2020, p. 6. doi: 10.1016/j.bsheal.2020.01.003.

Journal: A.M. Saéz et al. Investigating the zoonotic origin of the West African Ebola epidemic. EMBO Molecular Medicine. Vol. 1, January 2015, p. 17. doi: 10.15252/emmm.201404792.

Book: D. Quammen. Spillover: Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic. New York, W.W. Norton Co., 2012, 592 pp. ISBN: 978-0-393-34661-9.

About Lindsey Konkel

Lindsey Konkel likes to write stories about the environment and health for Science News for Students . She has degrees in biology and journalism. She has three cats, Misty, Trumpet and Charlotte, and one dog, Lucky.

Classroom Resources for This Article Learn more

Free educator resources are available for this article. Register to access:


Watch the video: Ιός Ζίκα: Όσα πρέπει να γνωρίζετε σε 2 λεπτά (September 2022).


Comments:

  1. Samugor

    In it something is. Many thanks for the help in this matter.

  2. Negis

    It is just a wonderful message

  3. Bidziil

    Very well, I thought as well.



Write a message